Tibet and China: two separate Views *

Chinese History of Tibet | Tibet History of Tibet
world governments do not recognize Tibet | world governments do not recognize Tibet, Tibet is free | Tibet is not free

Chinese History of Tibet
Tibet part of China since the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368). Centuries ago, Mongol and Manchu emperors ruled or influenced large parts of Asia. During the Tang (618-907), Tibetan King, Songsten Gampo married Princess Wen Cheng. Princess is believed to have had much influence in Tibet. During the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), Tibet was part of the Mongol Empire, which is under the rule of the Yuan. At that time, the Yuan government introduced registration of residence, collected taxes, and imposed a corvee duties in Tibet. "White Paper" China claims that the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) "is replaced by the Yuan Dynasty in China, and inherited right to rule Tibet." During the Manchu rule (1644-1911), Qing army entered several times in Tibet, to protect it. Finally, in 1951 China and Tibet local government signed a 17-point agreement for the peaceful liberation of Tibet. During this time, the 14th Dalai Lama supports this liberation and acknowledged that Tibet is part of China.

Tibetan History of Tibet
Tibet recorded history of statehood, which extends to 127 BC In the seventh to ninth centuries, Tibetans often prevailed Tang Dynasty in battle. Moreover, during this dynasty, the marriage of Princess Wen Cheng and King Gampo is considered as a strategic move to achieve cooperation and peace between Tibet and China. In 821, after centuries of periodic fighting, China and Tibet signed a treaty where boundaries were confirmed, and each side promised to respect the territorial sovereignty. During the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), Mongol leader, Genghis Khan conquered most of Eurasia, including China. So instead of China, claiming a right of Tibet, Mongolia might want to claim China and Tibet. There is historical evidence to support the assumption that the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) governed Tibet. In fact, the Qin Emperor in 1652 not only the fifth Dalai Lama as the leader of an independent state, the Emperor treated him as a god on Earth. During this period, Tibet was known in Chinese as his Wu-Zang or Wu-Si Guo (Guo meaning country). During the Manchu rule (1644-1911), Qing army was asked by Tibetans to settle disputes. But that does not support the right of China in Tibet. If it does, then the U.S. should claim Kuwait and Haiti since it assisted these countries. Indeed, on several occasions, Tibet exercised power over China, suggesting that perhaps Tibet should claim China! During the invasion of China in 1949, Tibet has all the attributes of an independent state, recognized by international law, including a defined territory, government, tax system, unique currency, unique postal system and stamps, army and carryout international relations. Two years later, a 17-point agreement was imposed on the Tibetan government from the threat of weapons after 40,000 PLA ​​troops had already seized the eastern part of Tibet º provincial capital, Chamdo. Tibetan delegates are threatened. The seal of the Tibetan Government was forged from Beijing. In Tibet, the 14th Dalai Lama could not freely express his disapproval. However, shortly after his arrival in India, he refutes this Agreement, stating that "traction in the government of Tibet and people from the threat of weapons." If Tibet was always part of China, why is there a need for 17-point agreement? Finally, Atlas Maps of Chinese History (published by the Chinese Institute of Social Sciences in Beijing) depicts Tibet as an independent country that has never been part of China, at least before 1280.

Chinese History of Tibet | Tibet History of Tibet
world governments do not recognize Tibet | world governments do not recognize Tibet, Tibet is free | Tibet is not free

World governments do not recognize Tibet: China's view
China argues that no country has never recognized Tibet. China also claims that Britain is scheduled Simla Conference (1913-1914) in collusion with Tibetan pro-British individuals. Both wanted to separate Tibet from China. During the Simla Conference, although the "McMahon Line" agreement between Tibet and Britain at the end of a tripartite conference on the status of Tibet and the border, Chinese officials there refused to recognize a "Line" on the grounds that Tibet is was subordinate to China and had no power to make all contracts.

World governments recognize Tibet: Tibetan Perspective
International law states that recognition may arise from explicit or implicit acts, including contracts, negotiations and diplomatic relations. Mongolia and Tibet signed a formal agreement for recognition in 1913. Historically, Nepal and Tibet, peace treaties. Independence of Tibet º was also confirmed in the Treaty of Simla (1914), which was concluded by Tibet and British India. In 1949, Tibet maintained diplomatic, economic and cultural relations with countries such as Nepal, Sikkim, Mongolia, China, British India, and to some extent, Russia and Japan. Moreover, the Nepalese Ambassador in Lhasa support the UN and in 1949 she conducted international relations with Tibet. In fact, the UK, Bhutan, India and even China also maintains diplomatic missions in the capital of Tibet, Lhasa. Tibetan Foreign Affairs held talks with President Franklin Delano Roosevelt when he sent representatives to Lhasa to discuss the Allied war effort against Japan during World War II. In 1950 El Salvador formally requested to be placed on the agenda of the UN General Assembly that China's aggression against Tibet. The issue was not discussed. However, during the four UN General Assembly debates on Tibet (1959, 1960, 1961 and 1965), many countries (eg Philippines, Nicaragua, Thailand, USA, Ireland), openly declared that Tibet was an independent state illegally occupied by China. In fact, the UN adopted three resolutions (1959, 1961, 1965) on Tibet, says that Tibetans have been deprived of their inalienable rights to self-determination. Even Mao Zedong during the long time recognized that Tibet was an independent state when he died in the border regions of Tibet Was, "This is our only debt, and someday will have to pay Mantzu (SIC) and for the Tibetans provisions we were obliged to take them. "Tibetans are clearly people under international law, as described, for example, the UNESCO International meeting of experts to further study the concept of the rights of nations. They are individuals and meet all the features of this concept: a shared history, common language, culture and ethnicity.

Chinese History of Tibet | Tibet History of Tibet
world governments do not recognize Tibet | world governments do not recognize Tibet, Tibet is free | Tibet is not free

Tibet was liberated: China perspective º is
China declared that the invasion and occupation of Tibet has been designed to free Tibetans from feudal serfdom and medieval slavery. Tibetan serfs is believed to have freedoms. They were regarded by their masters, talking animals. China argues that the masses of Tibetan serfs lived in extreme poverty. After liberation in 1959, China claims that Tibetans enjoy all rights of equality and they have taken the path of freedom and happiness. China claims that Tibet is a modernized community benefit from economic growth and social progress. Millions of serfs are now masters of their fate, and a large number of Tibetan workers, intellectuals, and officials have taken the task of building and managing Tibet. China claims that all Tibetans now have equal rights in politics, economy and everyday life. Tibetans also believe that in order to enjoy full religious freedom. China claims that Tibetans have benefited greatly from their presence. Now there are over 2,500 primary schools in Tibet. Moreover, the White Paper on China º is, China has invested 1.1 billion yuans, to develop education in Tibet. Big strides have been made in education, science, culture and public health. For example, China claims that Tibetan monastery was rebuilt, convents and monuments. Moreover, claims that the Tibetan population reached 2 million from 1 million in 1950 China also claims that Tibetan officials fully support the Communist Party and Government in Tibet. China claims that negotiations are the only solution for Tibet, stating that the 14th Dalai Lama of the situation must amount to go with the tide of historical development and make the right choice.

Tibet is not free: Tibetan Perspective
Old Tibet was not perfect. This Dalai Lama admitted that. However, the 14th Dalai Lama initiated far-reaching reforms in Tibet, immediately after taking temportal authority. Throughout the history of Tibet, the abuse of peasants was forbidden by law and social norms. Most of the land in Tibet held by the peasants. Famine and starvation were unheard of in Tibet. "Liberation" has led to the deaths of over 1.2 million Tibetans and destroyed more than 6,000 Tibetan monasteries and cultural centers. Before "liberation" in 1959, the population of Tibet is 6 million. Before the invasion, Tibet was simple and self-reliant nation with a rich cultural heritage. Citizens of the Tibet º is compared with its "neighbors, enjoy much greater freedom. We Tibetans have become a real serfs. In independent Tibet, over 6,000 monasteries and convents serve as schools. Most were destroyed, and many of them have been reconstructed as a result of the Tibetan Finance and Labor. Teachers in China, "new schools" are unqualified to teach Tibetan language, culture or history. Chinese students are the main beneficiaries of these schools. Since 1980 more than 15,000 Tibetan children have escaped from Tibet to receive education in India.The first beneficiaries of China's presence in Tibet º were Chinese settlers, government and their military and their businesses. Former Communist Party Secretary, Hu Yaobang, even acknowledged in 1980 that the living standards of Tibetans has fallen since 1959 and that large Chinese presence is an obstacle to development. China's policy in Tibet, not even received the full support of Tibetan cadres, not to mention people in Tibet. China has never found a reliable Tibetan serve in key government position in Tibet. For the past 21 years, the Dalai Lama and the Tibetan government in exile have offered several proposals for negotiations for mutual benefit of Tibet and China. They are been ignored or rejected by China.

* Note. These views are derived from various Tibetan and Chinese literature.

Tibet: A Brief History

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Mahayana and Theravada
Buddhism in Southeast Asia
Buddhist murals
print print
Book banners and Buddhist
New scrolls Buddhist sects in
Japanese Buddhism today

History of Buddhism Timeline

Siddartha Gautama: c.430 BC.

At the age of twenty-nine Siddhartha Gautama, a prince of the ruling house in Nepal abandon the luxury of home and the love of his wife and young son to become a wandering ascetic. It is a model are not uncommon in India at the time when the lack of flexibility of the priest-dominated Hinduism cause many people to seek personal religion. Just a few years earlier in a nearby neighborhood, a young man by the name of Vardhamana has done exactly the same - with lasting results in the form of Jainism. (Conventional dates for the two men, revised by modern science, are a century earlier). Gautama differs from Vardhamana In one important respect. He found that asceticism is almost as unsatisfactory as a luxury.



According to traditional accounts (first written in the 3rd century BC.) Gautama should ascetic life for six years before deciding that the middle way between restraint and indulgence of the body will provide the best hope for achieving enlightenment . He decided to meditate in moderate comfort, until he sees the light of truth. One evening he sits under the pipal tree in Buddh Gaya, a village in Bihar. At dawn he was literally Buddha "the Enlightened One." Like any other religious leader, he began to gather disciples. He became known to his followers as the Buddha.


Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path: c.424 BC.

Gautama preached his first sermon at Sarnath, about 5 miles (8 km) north of the holy Hindu city of Varanasi. In this sermon, still a definitive text for all Buddhists, it offers a path to enlightenment very different from the complex ceremonies and colorful myth Hindu deities. Gautama message is plain stupidity point in any case where a simple list - as is usually primers for Buddhism. He argues that enlightenment can be achieved by understanding the Four Noble Truths and the pain of life, which refers Noble Truths can be avoided by following the Eightfold Path.



Four Noble Truths is that pain is an integral part of daily life of mankind, that our cravings of all kinds are the cause of the pain that the road outside that treadmill is to free ourselves from these hunger, and that this can be achieved by following the Eightfold Path. Path Buddhist orders of virtuous life, as it called for the "right" course of action in eight contexts. Many of them are moral evils to be avoided (as in the Jewish commandments). But the eighth step, "right concentration" goes to the heart of the Buddhist ideal.



Proper concentration is described in Buddhist scripture, focusing on an object so that it induces a state of mind through deep meditation. Thus Buddhist hopes to achieve complete purity of thought, which ideally to nirvana. Nirvana means 'blowing', and flame. It is common to Hinduism and Jainism, and Buddhism as well. But in both older religions leads to moksha, release from the cycle of rebirth extinction. In Buddhism is transcendent blissful state which can be achieved in life or after death - and what has been achieved by anyone who becomes Buddha.


Buddhism: c.380 BC 250.

Until his death at eighty years, the followers of Buddha are established communities of monks in northern India. Wandering through villages and towns with begging bowls, eager to describe the path to truth, they are familiar figures. But also many other such groups, including the Jains. advance beyond the Buddhists of others is largely due to the enthusiastic support of the king of the 3rd century BC. Asoka rules over much of the Indian subcontinent. His inscriptions carved on rocks and pillars throughout his kingdom, as witness the spread of Buddhism and his own benevolent support of the principles of Buddha.



During the reign of Ashoka, and promote, Buddhism spread to south India and Sri Lanka. The latter remained until today a stronghold of the earliest form of Buddhism known as Theravada (ie the "school of the elders"). During Ashoka there is already one million rival tendency within Buddhism, including one million development of the Buddha, in essence, a simple message of personal salvation. The difference is similar to that between Protestants and Catholics during the Reformation in Christianity. Compared with the puritan standards of Theravada Buddhism, another sect, which later became known as Mahayana - introduce Catholic abundance of Buddhist saints.


Mahayana and Theravada

Mahayana means Great vehicle. Its supporters argue that this form of Buddhism can bring more people to the truth than Theravada Buddhism, which they rejected as hinayana - less vehicle main difference is that in Theravada Buddha is a historical figure, which his example shows the way to Nirvana, a cult is a fundamental human system of self-discipline, with no trace of God. In the younger but bigger sect is still God, but there are many supernatural beings.



In Mahayana the historical Buddha, Gautama, became the latest in a long line of past Buddhas. They exist in some place beyond this world from which they can offer support. Also on this site are bodhisattvas who have yet to begin the final life in which they would reach enlightenment as the Buddha. They can also help the death to show them loyalty. In Theravada nearest approach to worship is the worship of relics of the historical Buddha, whose hair and teeth is an essential feature of the temple. In Mahayana, with many semi-divine figures, has a richer, more popular and superstitious forms of worship. It is suitable to become what it claims to be a great vehicle.


A religion of East Asia: from the first century AD

Buddhism is the first world religions to expand from its place of origin. This is done by two different routes. Theravada Buddhism is carried to the East to Southeast Asia, the rise of the Indian trade from the 1st century AD. Merchants and sailors are Buddhists or Hindu, and missionaries to take advantage of new travel options. As a result of the kingdoms of Southeast Asia, much influenced by the more advanced civilization of India, to take various Buddhist and Hindu religious practices. Which two predominant often the result of the preferences of the ruling dynasty. Areas, which ultimately choose Buddhism are Burma, Thailand, Cambodia and Laos.



Mahayana Buddhism traveled the land route. In the 2nd century AD northern India and Afghanistan is governed by the Kushan dynasty, one of whose kings, Kanishka, is an admirer of this form of Buddhism. His promotion of it has special significance because his kingdom is at the center on the Silk Road - one of the busiest times, when their caravans effectively link China with Rome Western influence on the region of the Kushan (also known as Gandhara) observed in popular style of sculpture that depicts Buddhist figures with the realism of Greece and Rome. East of Gandhara trade route is worthy rather spectacular Buddhist centers, Yun-kang.



Buddhism is well established in China since the 2nd century AD and there is interwoven with a different fate, along with local religions in China - Taoism and Confucianism. By the 6th century, its influence has spread through Korea to Japan. Here also coexists in replacement model with the earlier Japanese religion, Shinto, the region that develops the most distinctive form of Buddhism is located between India and China, and received his first Buddhist influences from both directions in the 7th century. This is Tibet. It will develop a unique element of Buddhism for itself - a series of reincarnating lamas, the Dalai Lama as a senior line.



Buddhism flourished in India with Hinduism for many years, but around the 8th century decline (though Theravada Buddhism found a permanent home in Sri Lanka). Version of the Mahayana faith gradually submerged by the older and more vigorous Hinduism. This may have been too willing to accommodate new topics, lively influenced by slope of India to worship it. weakened Buddhism proved no match for his arrival in northern India in the 10th century the rulers, professing another vigorous faith, Islam. Buddhism is no more than a weak presence in front of several classical temples. This is the only religion in the world to have withered in his native place.


Buddhist murals: 5th - 8th century "AD

Monks and the world, plays an important role in the practice of Buddhism. Both are attracted to caves in remote locations. A profusion of popular stories in Mahayana Buddhism (on topics such as Adventures of Buddha in his previous life on earth) provide a rich source of material for narrative paintings on cave walls. suggest two places more vividly than any other vitality of the Buddhist cave paintings from about the fifth century "AD. One of them is Ajanta, a site in India, long forgotten, until it opened in 1817. The other is Dunhuang, a of the largest oasis staging posts along the Silk Road.



At Ajanta there are about thirty architectural spaces cut into the cliff, flanking a ravine. Some of them are viharas or monasteries, with cells for monks around the central hall. Others are chaityas, or meeting places, with a small central stupa as an object of worship and contemplation. paintings range from calm devotional images of Buddha in a lively and crowded scenes, often featuring tempting full breasts and narrow waist women more familiar in Indian sculpture than in painting. The newest pictures are from the 8th century, after the decline of Buddhism in India causes these remote and beautiful places to become gradually abandoned and then completely forgotten.



Dunhuang, one of the greatest trading routes in the world, is entirely occupied by Ajanta. Rather than thirty caves, Dunhuang has nearly 500 - known as the Caves of the Thousand Buddhas. The murals cover three centuries, from 5th to 8th "AD. The images in the earlier caves (carved from soft rock, as in Ajanta) show the influence of Central Asia and even India - regions, of which Buddhism is moving on the road to China, but later paintings are completely Chinese style. Dunhuang, unlike Ajanta, never lost. But one particular cave is sealed against intruders. Rediscovered in 1899, this cave has been found to contain at fine examples of Chinese painting on silk in the world, first known printed book.


Printed Buddhist texts in Korea and Japan: 750-768 "AD

The invention of printing is a striking achievement of Buddhists in East Asia. Korea takes the lead. In the world earliest known printed document is a sutra printed on a single sheet of paper in Korea in AD 750. This is closely followed in Japan than a million brave experiment in mass distribution (just below the area in which the manuscript precedence over printed material). At 768 "AD, pious Buddhist Nara, the empress commissions a huge edition of lucky charm or a prayer. It is said that the project took six years to complete and that the number of printed copies for distribution to pilgrims, one million. Many of them survived.


The first printed book: "AD 868

The earliest known printed book is Chinese, the end of the dynasty T'ang. Discovered in a cave in Dunhuang in 1899, it is just a document that brings the circumstances of its creation, bright life. scroll 16 feet long and feet high, formed of sheets of paper glued together at their ends. The text is that Sutra Diamond, and the first sheet in a roll distinction. This is the world's first printed illustration depicting an enthroned Buddha surrounded by holy attendants. In later known tradition of religious art in the west, a small figure kneels and prays in the foreground. He is probably the donor who paid for this holy book.



The name of the donor, Wang Chieh is revealed in another device, which later became traditional in early printed books in the west. Details are given for publication in the resin (in Greek "finishing stroke") at the end of the text. This indicates that the scroll is the work of Buddhist piety, combined with affiliate obligations of good Confucian ideals: 'Printed on 11 May 868 by Wang Chieh, for free general distribution, for a deep reverence to perpetuate the memory of their parents. " printing of Wang Chieh roll is of high standard, so you must have had many predecessors. But the happy coincidence of the cave in Dunhuang has given parents a memorial more lasting than could have imagined possible.


Buddhist banners and scrolls on silk: from the 9th century AD

The cave discovered in 1899 at Dunhuang contains many Buddhist paintings on silk. The larger ones (mostly showing Buddha seated in paradise with attendant figures) are designed for hanging out on poles on special occasions. Some are almost two yards in height and more than a yard wide.

Narrower vertical images of dramatically painted figures from Buddhist mythology are intended as banners, to be carried in procession with silk streamers attached. Painting on silk remains a central theme of Chinese art. But this flamboyant public use of images, characteristic of Buddhism, subsequently gives way to the more discreet and private art of the Confucians.

New sects of Buddhism in Japan: 12th - 13th century

One of Japan's most famous monuments is a vast bronze sculpture at Kamakura. Known as Daibutsu, and cast in 1252, it depicts Buddha. But this figure seated in peaceful meditation is not the historical Gautama Buddha. He is Amitabha Buddha, known and revered in Japan as Amida.

The cult of Amida, also called 'Pure Land' Buddhism, is one of several new sects in Japan, mostly arriving from China, which become naturalized during the Kamakura shogunate. It is based on a sutra in which Amida, who has achieved enlightenment as Buddha, assures all those who adore him that they can live with him for ever in a pure land - a Promise made in the Sukhavativyuha Sutra.


Another foreign sect of Buddhism, which the Japanese make very much their own, is known in China as Chan and in Japan as Zen (both derive from a Sanskrit word meaning 'meditation'). Zen, reaching Japan from China in the 12th century, lays great emphasis on intuition, or finding the truth within oneself, but it also stresses the importance of discipline.

It appeals to the new samurai class (several Zen masters teach sword fighting), and at periods during the shogunate it becomes almost the state religion. Zen masters encourage some of the most distinctive cultural aspects of Japanese life, including the Tea Ceremony (closely linked with the tradition of Japanese ceramics).


The most aggressive of the Buddhist sects is the only one to have its roots entirely in Japan. It follows the teaching of Nichiren, a fiery prophet who spends much of his life in exile for his criticism of the shoguns in Kamakura. They favour the rivals on whom he pours scorn, the devotees of Pure Land and Zen Buddhism.

Like Old Testament prophets, Nichiren foresees disaster befalling his misguided compatriots. The Mongol invasion of 1274 is seen by many as the fulfilment of his prophecies. His passion inspires a sect which still has a considerable following in 20th-century Japan.

Buddhism today

Buddhism in its various forms remains the most widespread of the ancient religions in east Asia, where it numbers some 300 million adherents. The greatest concentration is in the historic lands of Theravada Buddhism - Sri Lanka and the three countries, adjacent to each other, of Burma, Thailand and Cambodia. Buddhists still practising in Mahayana regions (China, Tibet, Mongolia) have suffered greatly from the atheist creed of Communism. In Japan a majority still adheres to various forms of Buddhism.

During the 20th century the faith has also begun to spread to entirely new regions. There is now a significant minority of Buddhists in the United States and in Europe.
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Bon religion that existed in Tibet long before the birth of Gautama Buddha, and in some remote areas, tradition is gone now.

Bon comes from a time when the planet lived naked, and human life is in constant danger because of the spirits reigned over Tibet and other powerful forces of nature.

It is believed that the first teacher of Bon Tonpa Shenrab came from heaven to teach people to resist and control of these forces. Originally, the swastika Bon is twisted in the opposite direction (counterclockwise), which represents the opposition forces of nature and inflexibility of the will of followers.

To control the forces of nature, the priests of Bon identify with God. Used rituals involving trance, during which a person receives a mystical experience that allows him to understand and conquer the world, others and especially yourself. As the confrontation requires a lot of energy used and bloody ritual sacrifice. Many rituals and guidance through damaged hair or pieces of doll clothes are very similar to voodoo and shamanism Africa. Largely because there was some glory Beaune "black magic". In fact, the property could equally well as direct damage and treat people.

Bon had a lot of resistance coming in Tibetan Buddhism, which eventually led to the introduction of "white Bona" in Tibetan Buddhism, and vice versa.
The world knows little of Tibet in the 19th century. Random outsider way there. Other options did not happen until the fall of the Manchu dynasty Ch'ing. Chinese garrison actually been introduced into Tibet in 1910 as a response, ultimately, the British mission to Tibet in 1904. Even the Dalai Lama into exile in India. But with the fall of the dynasty, the Chinese were attacked. They eventually evacuated, Tibet, and disarmed in India with British mediation. Dalai Lama returned. China is too distracted for some time to effectively assert its authority over Tibet and other areas, such as Mongolia, which is carried by Chinese influence. Invasion of Mongolia in 1919 for allegedly claimed there only in the Soviet-sponsored counter that continuously break the country from China. Expedition in Tibet is likely beyond the logistical capabilities of the struggling Republic of China.

A few years back to real independence and diplomatic relations with Britain, followed. The British did not recognize the full independence of Tibet, but they denied that Tibet is an intrinsic part of China or that China has the right to subjugate the Tibetan autonomy with force. China has never abandoned his claims, but there is absolutely too much going on elsewhere for the Chinese to worry about the innocent Tibetans. But after the Communists came to power, China is once again single, large, seasoned army and aggressive broadcast the same unapologetic leader Mao Tse-tung is not afraid to take the United States and the United Nations in Korea, Mao would have little to fear occupied Tibet. The British have gone from India and nobody else has any reason or opportunity for the protection of Tibetan independence. In 1950, against token opposition, rolled in Chinese first time that the Chinese government actually did this, not the foreign rulers, Mongol or Manchu China.

Although Tibetans have promised autonomy in China, they have recently been subjected to the inevitable oppression, vandalism and mass murder of the Communist government. , As never not been in very poor Tibetans, Alpine country, this kind of treatment plus Chinese colonization began producing genocidal effect. International community after the energy of "de-colonization" and a former guard for every police beating in South Africa shows little stomach for consistently affected by the Chinese over Tibet. On the other hand, the Fourteenth Dalai Lama, who fled into exile in 1959, proved to be attractive, eloquent and respected spokesman for his country, attracting the attention of many people, including a committee of Nobel Peace Prize and Hollywood pilgrims who are now sympathetic films about Tibet and the plight (eg, Seven Years in Tibet and Kundun). We can only hope that international pressure will increase and rescue a nation to preserve a unique ancient heritage.

Although Western, usually American defenders of Tibet sometimes belabored with accusations of hypocrisy because the treatment of Indian tribes in American history so that Americans are in no moral position to offend the Chinese over the treatment of Tibet, it remains true that nowhere in the world traditional tribal peoples who were the Neolithic or even Paleolithic stages of development during the contact with the advanced civilizations (east or west) are not included in more advanced countries. Often there are complaints about the condition and treatment of tribal peoples in many places, from the U.S. to Brazil to Sudan, but no specific level of criticism for those people who are in China. Tibet, however, for all its poverty and isolation, as an organized state far beyond the tribal level. Like Ethiopia, Afghanistan, Tibet is a kind of country that the era of "decolonization" will be expected to become independent, regardless of their previous functions. But the Chinese Empire and Chinese colonization survive with no more justification of the precedents of the Manchurian and Mongolian Empires.


Nepal is a Himalayan Kingdom sandwiched between India and China. Home to eight out of fourteen highest peaks in the world and the birthplace of Lord Buddha it has become the favorite destination for trekking and touring for travel junkies from all over the globe. Guarded by regal Himalayas, here you will get a chance to experience unique traditional practices and cultural heritages which remain far from today’s modernity. The large no of people here follow Hinduism which is believed to the oldest religion which is guided by oral traditions. The country has many sacred temples, shrines and monuments and is regarded as the open museum and also said as the anthropological pilgrimage. The total population of the country is 23million in which majority of the people are Indo Aryans and the remaining are of Mongolian origin.

The elevation of the country goes from 70m from the sea level to Mt Everest 8,848m which is the highest point in the earth. This altitudinal variation lies within the distance of 150km with climatic variations from Sub tropical to Alpine. The country is also known for the variety of ecosystem; the highest mountain ranges, thick tropical forests providing habitat to varied species of wildlife, furiously galloping snow fed rivers, forested hills and frozen valleys.

The people here mostly depend on agriculture for their livelihood. The main ethnic groups living in Kathmandu are Newars who mostly do business. Gurungs, Magars, Rai and Limbus are the warrior group and are famous around the world as Brave Gurkhas. If you want to experience life in a jiggering way then Nepal is the best destination.

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